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On this page IntroductionEach year, Health Canada receives thousands of reports of suspected adverse reactions (side effects) about drugs and natural health products and of suspected medical device best online viagra incidents. These reports, captured through the Canada Vigilance Program, contribute to Health Canada’s post-market monitoring of health product safety.Manufacturers, importers, hospitals and other mandatory reporters are required to report to Health Canada on adverse reactions and incidents related to marketed health products. Health Canada also encourages health care professionals, patients, caregivers and consumers to submit best online viagra voluntary reports about serious adverse reactions or incidents concerning drugs, natural health products or medical devices. Data from both the Canada Vigilance Program and other sources, like recalls that are reported to Health Canada, provide critical information that helps improve patient safety.Building the Canada Vigilance Program Since the Canada Vigilance Program began, the number of reports submitted to Health Canada has increased every year.

This increase is due to a number of factors, such as. The rise in the overall number of marketed health products the implementation of mandatory reporting for all hospitals in Canada the expansion of the Canadian Medical Devices Sentinel Network (CMDSNet), Health Canada’s proactive surveillance program that encourages program participants to report medical device incidents the implementation of voluntary consumer reporting Health Canada’s efforts to promote simpler and easier ways to report a changing and aging Canadian population with changing health needs an increase in patient safety programs by industry, which leads to an increase in targeted detection and reporting proactive best online viagra information gathering efforts by Health Canada, which lead to the discovery of unreported adverse drug reactions and medical device incidents While the number of reports is increasing, we know that adverse drug reactions and medical device incidents continue to be under-reported in Canada and worldwide.Improving the Canada Vigilance ProgramHealth Canada continues to improve the quantity and quality of all incoming Canada Vigilance Program data by. Providing feedback to stakeholders on the quality of reports identifying and flagging duplicate reports in the Canada Vigilance database cleaning the data so it can be analyzed using automated data entry to reduce human error implementing mandatory reporting by hospitals of serious adverse drug reactions and medical device incidents (as of December 2019) About the 2019 dataThis page summarizes data on adverse reaction reports received by Health Canada during 2019 and key trends over the past 10 years. We present data on.

Adverse reactions to drugs and natural health products incidents related to the use of medical devices recalls that best online viagra occurred after products were approved for sale in CanadaData on adverse drug reactions and medical device incidents are based on reports sent to Health Canada through the Canada Vigilance Program. Recall data are based on the work of the Regulatory Operations and Enforcement Branch. The statistics on this page are based only on Canadian reports and do not include data from other countries (foreign reports).Adverse reactions to drugs and natural health productsTotal number of reportsIn 2019, Health Canada received 96,559 domestic reports.Over the best online viagra last 10 years. The number of Canadian reports has increased over 4-fold (from 22,211 reports in 2010 to 96,559 reports in 2019) Health Canada received an average of 8,000 Canadian reports per month in 2019 Source of reportsIn 2019.

90,350 (93.6%) of reports came from mandatory reporters Canada has a strong reporting system in place to ensure that industry is responsible for their products and that they submit reports in a timely manner 3,849 (4.0%) were voluntary reports from health professionals working outside of hospitals 956 (1.0%) were voluntary reports from the general population 1,248 (1.3%) were from hospitals, which, until December 16, 2019, submitted reports to Health Canada on a voluntary basis Going forward, Health Canada anticipates receiving a larger volume of reports from hospitals because of the new mandatory reporting regulations Over the last 10 years. 9 out of 10 reports received at Health Canada were submitted by industryTypes of reported productsOne or best online viagra more drugs or natural health products may be mentioned in a report because the reporter suspects they played a role in the adverse reaction.In 2019. A total of 208,383 drugs or natural health products were mentioned in the 96,559 reports sent to Health Canada pharmaceutical drug products were most often reported, at 68.1% biotechnological products were the second most frequently reported, at 28.1% within these product categories, the specific products most often reported were. immunosuppressants (drugs that aim to reduce the activity of the body’s immune system) at 32.5% of all reported suspected products anti-neoplastic agents (drugs used to treat cancer) at 16.4% of all reported suspected products Over the last 10 years.

The most common products reported each year in adverse drug reactions have been immunosuppressants and anti-neoplastic best online viagra agents these numbers reflect the. large number of anti-neoplastic agents approved for use in Canada known risks associated with these products large number of patient reporting programs in place for these products severity of the underlying disease in the population being treated each year, more drugs and natural health products are included in the adverse reactions reported to Health Canada from 25,668 reported products in 2010 to 208,383 reported products in 2019, an 8-fold increase this may be due to improved reporting mechanisms and increased general awareness of the risks involved in using multiple products with the reporting of more drugs and natural health products, we can look at product interactions seen in real-world situations involving Canadians with complex medical needs Adverse reactionsA report may mention more than one adverse reaction. In 2019 best online viagra. 420,120 adverse reactions were mentioned in the reports sent to Health Canada the top 4 reported adverse reactions included.

general disorders and administration site conditions, such as pain or weakness (96,640, or 23.0%) gastrointestinal disorders, such as vomiting or diarrhea (37,892, or 9.0%) investigations that include performing tests and physical examinations (33,651, or 8.0%) musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders resulting in swelling or joint pain (33,531, or 8.0%) Over the last 10 years. Each year, more adverse reactions are included in the reports sent to Health Canada from 79,249 adverse reactions in 2010 to 420,120 reported reactions in 2019, a 5-fold increase this may be due to improved reporting mechanisms if more reporters report similar details about adverse reactions, this will help to reinforce ongoing issues seen with certain products this may signal a potential best online viagra public health issue for further review OutcomesIn 2019. 7 out of 10 (67,754, or 70.2%) adverse reactions reported to Health Canada were of a serious natureOver the last 10 years. The majority of adverse reaction reports were serious because.

regulated parties are legally obligated to report all serious reactions to best online viagra Health Canada health professionals and consumers are more likely to report serious reactions that result in harm We make it a priority to review the most serious product safety issues affecting Canadians. However, all reports are important. Together, they help to flag potential best online viagra product safety issues .In 2019. 6,119 (6.3%) reports mentioned a suspected link between a death that had occurred and the use of a drug or natural health product 18,852 (19.5%) reports mentioned hospitalization 2,483 (2.6%) reports mentioned the occurrence of a potentially life-threatening condition 193 (0.2%) reports mentioned a congenital anomaly (birth defect) 52,119 (54.0%) reports indicated that, without intervention, the reported adverse reaction could have resulted in a serious outcomeOutcomes are complex and may be the result of multiple factors, including existing medical conditions or the progression of an illness.

A reported outcome may not be directly caused by the use of a drug or natural health product. Increasing the best online viagra quantity and quality of reports submitted to Health Canada can provide more robust evidence and help to determine if there is a link to specific products. This in turn can keep Canadians safer from the harmful effects of certain health products. Medical device incidentsTotal number of incidentsIn 2019, Health Canada received information about 25,235 domestic incidents.Over the last 10 years.

The number of Canadian incidents has increased almost 4-fold (from 6,326 incidents in 2010 to best online viagra 24,726 incidents in 2019) an average of 2,000 Canadian incidents were reported each month in 2019Source of reportsIn 2019. 22,809 (92.2%) incidents were reported by industry Canada has a strong reporting system in place where industry is held accountable for their products and must report incidents in a timely manner to Health Canada as per the Medical Devices Regulations 1,018 (4.1%) incidents were based on voluntary reports from the community Voluntary reports from consumers, health care professionals and others add to the quality and quantity of incoming data and help provide a comprehensive picture of medical device problems or issues 554 (2.2%) incidents were reported by health care institutions participating in CMDSNet CMDSNet is a proactive surveillance program that encourages the reporting of medical device problem reports from participating institutions CMDSNet provides a complementary data source for post-market safety evaluations Over the last 10 years. 9 out of 10 incidents were reported by industryWith the introduction of mandatory reporting for all hospitals in December 2019, we anticipate receiving a larger volume of incident reports from hospitals in the future.Types of reported productsA medical device incident may involve more than one medical device. This means that multiple devices may be described in the reports sent to Health Canada.In best online viagra 2019.

A total of 25,519 suspected medical devices were mentioned in the incidents reported to Health Canada the most frequently reported devices were used in. general and plastic surgery (8,926, or 35.8%) general hospital settings (5,977, or 24.0%) cardiovascular care, like pacemakers, defibrillators and stents (2,478, or best online viagra 10.0%) Over the last 10 years prior to 2019. Devices for general hospital use (such as needles, catheters and syringes) were most often reported these incidents do not mean that these devices have more risk or cause more harm. Rather, they were.

reported more frequently to Health Canada used more often more readily available when compared to other medical devices in more specialized categories best online viagra In 2019. The category of general and plastic surgery (with devices such as electrodes, implants and surgical staplers) was the most reported this was due to the submission of a large number of reports related to breast implants this prompted Health Canada and its partners to. investigate the risks associated with some types of breast implants take some unsafe breast implant products off the market educate Canadians about breast implants Over the last 10 years. Each year, more suspected products are being reported in the medical device incidents sent to Health Canada from 6,544 devices in 2010 to 25,519 devices in 2019, a 4-fold increase this may be due to improved reporting mechanisms and increased general awareness of the importance best online viagra of reporting increased reporting gives us the ability to better understand what happens when people use more than one device at a time Device issuesMore than one issue or problem with a device may be mentioned in a medical device incident.

In 2019. 28,124 issues related to the use of medical devices were experienced material integrity problems (for example, material rupture, a burst container or vessel, or breaking) were best online viagra mentioned 28.1% of the time mechanical problems (especially fluid leaks) were mentioned 21.1% of the time Over the last 10 years. The types of reported issues may vary from year to year more issues with medical devices are being included in the reports sent to Health Canada from 374 issues in 2010 to 28,124 issues in 2019 this is likely due to improved reporting practices, which are capturing more detail, and the increase in the number of incoming reports we are working on improving standardized reporting and categorization of information, which will increase the quality and usability of the dataHealth effectsMore than one health effect may be mentioned in a medical device incident.In 2019. 22,518 health effects were mentioned in incidents reported to Health Canada the top reported health effect was hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which was reported in 1,896 (8.4%) incidents other reported health effects included.

capsular contracture (when the capsule surrounding an implanted best online viagra device distorts) (1,671, or 7.4%) injury (1,338, or 5.9%) pain (761, or 3.4%) Over the last 10 years. Hyperglycemia has remained a top reported health effect this is not unexpected. Devices that measure blood sugar, such as glucose meters and glucose monitoring systems, are some of the most frequently used medical devices in CanadaOutcomesIn 2019. 7,949 (34.5%) medical best online viagra device incidents reported to Health Canada were of a serious natureOver the last 10 years.

The proportion of medical device incidents that were serious. varied between 10.3% and 19.6% from 2010 to 2018 jumped to over one-third of all best online viagra incidents in 2019 this was due to the submission of a large number of reports related to breast implants While priority is given to reports that are flagged as serious, all reports are important. Taken together, reports of medical device incidents may indicate a potential public health issue. In 2019.

85 (0.4%) of all medical device incidents mentioned a possible link between a death that occurred and the use of a medical device however, the reported death may not have been directly caused by the suspected medical device incident surgery was the most common outcome reported in medical device incidents, with 3,365 incidents involving some form of surgery 1,659 (49.3%) were revision surgeries (to fix an issue) 1,291 (38.4%) were explantations (removal of device) 1,274 (76.8%) of the reported revision surgeries and 1,079 (83.6%) of the explantations involved breast implants 3,791 (19.7%) incidents indicated that there was no reported patient involvement or consequences to a patient these incidents did not cause harm, but were reported to Health Canada because they were near misses under different circumstances or without intervention, serious harm may have occurred this information helps us work with industry to take action before an actual harm occurs Marketed health product recallsRecallsA drug or best online viagra natural health product recall results in the correction of a distributed product or its removal from further sale or use.A medical device recall may result in. Removal of a product from further sale or use an on-site correction of the device an advisement to consumers of problems or potential problems with their device alternative labelling, which may include updates to instructions or manualsIn 2019, Health Canada received reports of. 162 pharmaceutical drug recalls 32 natural health product recalls 822 medical device recallsFor each report, the Department evaluates the recall strategy to ensure the appropriate corrective actions are taken and that the actions are effective. Identified health risksThere are 3 types of health best online viagra hazards.

Type I. Using or being exposed to a product will probably cause serious adverse health effects or death Type II. Using or being exposed best online viagra to a product may cause temporary adverse health consequences or the possibility of serious adverse health effects is remote Type III. Using or being exposed to a product is not likely to cause any adverse health effectsOf the 162 recalls of pharmaceutical drugs (prescription, non-prescription, radiopharmaceutical and active pharmaceutical ingredient).

52 were classified as type I best online viagra 59 were classified as type II 51 were classified as type IIIOf the 32 natural health product recalls. 16 were classified as type I 8 were classified as type II 8 were classified as type IIIOf the 822 medical device recalls. 37 were classified as type I 493 were classified as type II 292 were classified as type IIIRelated linksThe purpose of this notice is to advise stakeholders that Health Canada is proposing to. On this page Overview The interim order (IO) introduced on May 23, 2020, provides best online viagra another pathway to facilitate clinical trials for potential erectile dysfunction treatment drugs and medical devices, while upholding strong patient safety requirements and validity of trial data.

The IO expires on May 23, 2021, at which time authorizations for clinical trials issued under the IO will end. In light of the ongoing erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, there’s a need for sponsors of clinical trials for urgent drugs and devices used to diagnose, treat, mitigate or prevent erectile dysfunction treatment to continue their work. Thus, Health Canada proposes to maintain the flexibilities and regulatory oversight provided by best online viagra the IO until at least the fall of 2021. We’re also proposing to bring forward regulatory amendments that would allow the flexibilities under the IO to continue after the fall of 2021.

Sponsors will be able best online viagra to continue conducting clinical trials authorized under the IO as well as use this other pathway for new or later-phase erectile dysfunction treatment clinical trials. The proposed regulatory amendments will also. maintain patient safety while broadening access to these trials support the development of safe and effective therapies, yet through flexible measures will reduce the overall impact on the health care system contribute to ensuring further regulatory predictability to sponsors engaged in these important clinical trials The proposed regulatory amendments will have minimal changes in relation to the IO. The only best online viagra substantive change is to extend the records retention requirement beyond the duration of the IO.

For IO-authorized drug clinical trials, Health Canada is proposing to set most records retention requirements to 15 years. For medical devices, we’re proposing to align records requirements with those outlined in the Medical Devices Regulations. Neither the IO nor these proposed transition regulations would apply to radiopharmaceutical best online viagra drugs and Class I medical devices. Health Canada is also proposing to reduce most 25-year records retention requirements to 15 years for trials authorized through normal regulatory pathways.

This would apply to drugs (excluding radiopharmaceuticals) as well as natural health products under best online viagra the Food and Drug Regulations and Natural Health Products Regulations. Health Canada is considering certain exceptions to this proposal. Next steps Health Canada will consult with interested industry stakeholders, health system partners and other government departments on the proposed regulations. We will be best online viagra holding a webinar and teleconference in each official language in December 2020.

Written comments are also welcome by January 25, 2021. Once stakeholder input is considered, we will publish the transition regulations in the Canada Gazette and revised guidance. Contact us best online viagra For more information or to provide comments about this notice, please email us at hc.policy.bureau.enquiries.sc@canada.ca. For more information on the proposed records retention requirements, please email us at hc.prsd-questionsdspr.sc@canada.ca.

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Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital has become the first public hospital in NSW with a robotic pharmacy, with the $265 million Stage 2 redevelopment on track for completion next year.Health Minister Brad Hazzard, along with Member for Hornsby Matt Kean, saw the robotic dispensing and stocktaking system in motion today and toured the newly opened 12-bed Intensive Care Unit.“The $265 million Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital Stage 2 redevelopment will provide a superior experience for patients, carers, staff and visitors, with a larger emergency department and an Intensive Care Unit about three times the size of the previous one,” Mr Hazzard said.“The new, state-of-the-art pharmacy is also more than double in size and, thanks to its advanced robotics, can select and dispense female viagra pill medications and conduct stocktakes faster, reducing errors and wastage and allowing pharmacists to spend more time with patients.”Mr Kean said the new Intensive Care Unit opened less than a month ago and is a modern, purpose-built department that includes single patient rooms, with large observation windows and a large staff station.“This new Intensive Care Unit brings Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital into the 21st century by ensuring the building matches the superior care the clinicians deliver. There is vast space for clinicians to provide outstanding care, with patients’ needs at the centre of its female viagra pill design,” Mr Kean said.“There is more natural light which is important for the patient’s recovery, more privacy for patient care and family discussions and every room can be an isolation room if required, meaning better control.”Other departments to have opened as part of the redevelopment include Outpatients, Paediatrics and Medical Imaging.The $265 million Stage 2 redevelopment will deliver a new Clinical Services Building, due for completion next year, and a refurbished and expanded Emergency Department.The Clinical Services Building will include:A combined Intensive Care and High Dependency Unit;Combined Respiratory/Cardiac and Coronary Care beds co-located with a Cardiac Investigations Unit;Ambulatory Care Centre (Outpatients Department);Medical Imaging;Paediatrics;Medical Assessment Unit;Inpatients Units (including general medicine, rehabilitation, stroke and dementia/delirium beds);Co-located education space with The University of SydneyHelipadThe redevelopment will also deliver a refurbished and expanded Psychiatric Emergency Care Centre, new day chemotherapy unit and renal dialysis unit for the first time at Hornsby, expansion of oral health services and integration of community health services.The NSW Government is investing an additional $4 million to fast-track the redevelopment of Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital to begin in 2020-21.Minister for Health Brad Hazzard said the funding boost will bring the total spend for the project to $438 million, which will also support the acquisition of nearby Nowra Park.“The NSW Government is committed to investing in regional hospitals to ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare closer to home,” Mr Hazzard said.“The land acquisition of Nowra Park is necessary to provide for the expansion of clincial services at Shoalhaven Hospital.”The existing hospital site with expansion into the adjacent Nowra Park has been identified as the best solution for the redeveloped hospital.Clinical services planning is already well underway to identify the range of health services the Illawarra Shoalhaven community will require into the future. The additional funding will allow planning activities to progress including:Detailed site investigations, including in-ground female viagra pill investigations. Enabling works, including female viagra pill services diversion and potential in-ground works.

And Design works for the redevelopment, including female viagra pill clinical design. Member for the South Coast Shelley Hancock released new artist impressions and said residents will benefit from the hospital expansion, with new and upgraded health facilities to be delivered sooner.“Additionally, as we can see in these stunning images, the completed hospital will return green space back to the community, with an inclusive playground a key component of the park,” Mrs Hancock said.Member for Kiama Gareth Ward said he’s pleased work can get underway on the expanded hospital as soon as possible.“With the ongoing investments female viagra pill we have already put into the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, this is the next big step after the completion of the $11.8 million hospital car park project this year,” Mr Ward said.Construction will start on the redeveloped hospital in this term of Government, prior to March 2023The SDMH redevelopment is one of 29 health projects announced before the 2019 election and is a part of the NSW Government’s record $10.7 billion investment in health infrastructure over the next 4 years.In the Illawarra Shoalhaven, other health projects include $700 million for a new Shellharbour Hospital, $37.1 million towards the Bulli Hospital and Aged Care Centre, and the Dapto and Ulladulla HealthOne projects, delivered as part of the $100 million HealthOne program.Artist impressions are available..

Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital has become the first public hospital in NSW with a robotic pharmacy, with the $265 million Stage 2 redevelopment on track for completion next year.Health Minister Brad Hazzard, along with Member for Hornsby Matt Kean, saw the robotic dispensing and stocktaking system in best online viagra motion today and toured the newly opened 12-bed Intensive Care Unit.“The $265 million Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital Stage 2 redevelopment will provide a superior experience for patients, carers, staff and visitors, with a larger emergency department and an Intensive Care Unit about three times the size of the previous one,” Mr Hazzard said.“The new, state-of-the-art pharmacy is also more than double in size and, thanks to its advanced robotics, can select and dispense medications and conduct stocktakes faster, reducing errors and wastage and allowing pharmacists to spend more time with patients.”Mr Kean said the new Intensive Care Unit opened less than a month ago and is a modern, purpose-built department that includes single patient rooms, with large observation windows and a large staff station.“This new Intensive Care Unit brings Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital into the 21st century by ensuring the building matches the superior care the clinicians deliver. There is vast space for clinicians to provide outstanding care, with patients’ needs at the centre of its design,” Mr Kean said.“There is more natural light which is important for the patient’s recovery, more privacy for patient care and family discussions and every room can be an isolation room if required, meaning better control.”Other departments to have opened as part of the redevelopment include Outpatients, Paediatrics and Medical Imaging.The $265 million Stage 2 redevelopment will deliver a new Clinical Services Building, due for completion next year, and a refurbished and expanded Emergency Department.The Clinical Services Building will include:A combined Intensive Care and High Dependency Unit;Combined Respiratory/Cardiac and Coronary Care beds co-located with a Cardiac Investigations Unit;Ambulatory Care Centre (Outpatients Department);Medical Imaging;Paediatrics;Medical Assessment Unit;Inpatients Units (including general medicine, rehabilitation, stroke and dementia/delirium beds);Co-located education space with The University of SydneyHelipadThe redevelopment will also deliver a refurbished and expanded Psychiatric Emergency Care Centre, new day chemotherapy unit and renal dialysis unit for the first time at Hornsby, expansion of oral health services and integration best online viagra of community health services.The NSW Government is investing an additional $4 million to fast-track the redevelopment of Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital to begin in 2020-21.Minister for Health Brad Hazzard said the funding boost will bring the total spend for the project to $438 million, which will also support the acquisition of nearby Nowra Park.“The NSW Government is committed to investing in regional hospitals to ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare closer to home,” Mr Hazzard said.“The land acquisition of Nowra Park is necessary to provide for the expansion of clincial services at Shoalhaven Hospital.”The existing hospital site with expansion into the adjacent Nowra Park has been identified as the best solution for the redeveloped hospital.Clinical services planning is already well underway to identify the range of health services the Illawarra Shoalhaven community will require into the future. The additional funding will allow planning best online viagra activities to progress including:Detailed site investigations, including in-ground investigations. Enabling works, including services diversion and potential in-ground works best online viagra.

And Design best online viagra works for the redevelopment, including clinical design. Member for the South Coast Shelley Hancock released new artist impressions and said residents will benefit from the hospital expansion, with new and upgraded health facilities to be delivered sooner.“Additionally, as we can see in these stunning images, the completed hospital will return green space back to the community, with an inclusive playground a key component of the park,” Mrs Hancock said.Member for Kiama Gareth Ward said he’s pleased work can get underway on the expanded hospital as soon as possible.“With the ongoing investments we have already put into the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, this is the next big step after the completion of the $11.8 million hospital car park project this year,” Mr Ward said.Construction will start on the redeveloped hospital in this term of Government, prior to March 2023The SDMH redevelopment is one of 29 health projects announced before the 2019 election and is a part of the NSW Government’s record $10.7 best online viagra billion investment in health infrastructure over the next 4 years.In the Illawarra Shoalhaven, other health projects include $700 million for a new Shellharbour Hospital, $37.1 million towards the Bulli Hospital and Aged Care Centre, and the Dapto and Ulladulla HealthOne projects, delivered as part of the $100 million HealthOne program.Artist impressions are available..

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As a world-leading Visit Your URL authority on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), buy viagra with prescription Professor Michael A. Gatzoulis believes the field is a success story of modern medicine with an ever-increasing number of patients able to reach and enjoy adulthood, including those with complex disease who previously had a guarded prognosis.Yet he also concedes there is still a long way to go to improve the care for this group of patients with life-long disease. In addition to more evidence-based practice for this buy viagra with prescription global disease affecting approximately 1% of new-borns, he advocates a personalized ACHD approach with patient education and empowerment at its heart, and better use of technology.A Consultant Cardiologist at the Royal Brompton &. Harefield NHS Trust in London, and the Academic Head of ACHD and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), his key objective has been ‘to promote the needs of patients with congenital heart disease, including delivery of best care, translation research, training, and education’.Prof. Gatzoulis was born into an ‘open-minded and supportive’ medical family in Drama, a city in the north-east of Greece, where his older brother Konstantinos—currently Professor of Cardiology at the University of Athens—and younger sister Thalia (now a successful artist) also studied medicine.

His father, Athanasios, was a paediatrician.‘I buy viagra with prescription was very rebellious as a teenager’, he recalled, ‘my old friends hardly recognize me now’. Indeed, he failed to enter the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki at the first attempt but was accepted the following year in 1977. Following graduation and his national service as a soldier and a year’s provincial service as a young doctor, he left his homeland for London in 1987 ‘for a new challenge’, securing a paediatric Senior House buy viagra with prescription Officer role working long hours. €˜I liked the environment and the responsibility, though in the beginning it was challenging. For the first few months I was coming home totally exhausted, but it got better, and I have no regrets’.With an interest in the heart, he felt the natural next step was paediatric cardiology, so he seized the opportunity when consultant paediatric cardiologist Dr Michael Rigby asked him to join the Royal Brompton Hospital in 1992 (Figure 1).

Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa buy viagra with prescription 1880.Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.With his PhD mentor there, Prof. Andrew Redington, he began studying the right ventricle (RV) in adult patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, which led to several important publications.Right ventricular diastolic function, he added, was linked for the first time to arrhythmia and propensity to sudden cardiac death, the ‘mechano-electric concept’, which had implications on prognostication and led to a proactive approach towards pulmonary valve replacement (Figure 2).1 Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with buy viagra with prescription sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and buy viagra with prescription (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with buy viagra with prescription repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and buy viagra with prescription (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.‘It was a golden era for paediatric cardiology at the Brompton’, said Prof. Gatzoulis, ‘and I could clearly see that ACHD was an area of growth and need’.Having completed buy viagra with prescription his post-graduate training in London by the end of 1996, and smitten by clinical research, he decided not to go back to Greece but moved instead to Canada to work with Gary Webb at the Toronto General Hospital.Returning to London in 1999, he became head of the GUCH (Grown-up CHD) unit at Royal Brompton Hospital, succeeding Prof. Jane Somerville, to run and expand one of the world’s largest ACHD clinical, training and research programmes.Today, Prof. Gatzoulis is the academic head of the Adult Congenital Heart Centre and the Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension and clinical lead for ACHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital and a Professor of Cardiology and CHD at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London.

Together with his colleagues, he looks after more than 10 000 ACHD and 1000 PAH patients, including those with the greatest disease complexity.Among his influences was his father, ‘an amazing person ahead of his time’, who after a successful career as a paediatrician retired at 60 and embarked on a new calling on nature preservation and community buy viagra with prescription work. Prof. Redington taught him how to buy viagra with prescription conduct and report research, while Dr Webb was inspiring with his ‘inclusivity and painstaking work on databases’. But he also reflects on the influence of obstetrician Prof. Phil Steer from the Chelsea &.

Westminster Hospital, ‘for his patient-centred holistic approach and team building, while maintaining academic rigour and buy viagra with prescription output’.Prof. Gatzoulis’ research focus has been on mechanisms and prevention of heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death in CHD and the treatment of PAH. He said buy viagra with prescription. €˜We have improved the outlook for CHD patients a great deal, but for the most part we have not fixed it’. Prof.

Gatzoulis recalls buy viagra with prescription how Prof. Andrew Coats, then head of research at the Royal Brompton, was supportive of his early descriptive work on heart failure markers and exercise intolerance in ACHD, which have now become standard practice (Figure 3). €˜Our work reinforced that we have not cured CHD and at the same time we have opened new therapeutic opportunities’. Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting buy viagra with prescription at the Brompton site.Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.The Brompton’s designation as a national centre for ACHD and PAH in 2002 was a significant step forward, delivering greater patient numbers for his team to understand the pathophysiology and try novel therapies. €˜Patients with Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES), the extreme end of the CHD-PAH spectrum, were either neglected or mismanaged by dogma and we have done a lot of work on pathophysiology of their condition and advanced therapies (Figure 4), which has transformed their lives and relevant practice’.

Figure 4Peripheral cyanosis in a patient buy viagra with prescription with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus buy viagra with prescription and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES. Take the patient’s socks off).

Left panel buy viagra with prescription. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis et al. IJC 2014, buy viagra with prescription permission granted.Figure 4Peripheral cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel.

Peripheral cyanosis buy viagra with prescription. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES. Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel buy viagra with prescription. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies.

From Gatzoulis et buy viagra with prescription al. IJC 2014, permission granted. Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.He believes his original work on pulmonary regurgitation/right ventricular function, with his serendipitous ECG observations, the mechano-electric concept, together with the groundwork on HF and the clinical trials on PAH in the context of CHD, as among his most important.Asked how he thinks his work has advanced the field, Prof. Gatzoulis replied buy viagra with prescription. €˜There was a major impact from our research on ACHD practice with our proactive approach.

A lot of the recent focus of mainstream buy viagra with prescription cardiology—for example, the right ventricle, the pulmonary vascular bed, and even transaortic valve implantation (TAVI)—relate to original research or innovations originating from CHD.‘Overall, we have made progress, but we cannot be complacent. There is clearly more to do. More evidence is needed to inform our practice and we must work more collaboratively to achieve this. CHD is buy viagra with prescription a very heterogeneous disease. And we are not doing a good enough job in empowering patients to lead independent and full lives.‘Now is the time to move to a more patient-centred, holistic approach, where we are truly the patient’s advocate.

Education is buy viagra with prescription central to this and merits further investment.2 Better use of technology, including Artificial Intelligence3 and remote monitoring are also due and have come to the fore due to the self-isolation protocols of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra'.Prof. Gatzoulis is particularly proud of the 150+ ACHD Fellows that trained with him at the Brompton. €˜The number one asset for me is the patient, but number two—and close behind—are the Fellows who come to train with us in ACHD. The fact buy viagra with prescription is that I learn from them—and from the patients—more than they learn from me!. The ACHD Fellows are now all over the world practising ACHD and I am immensely proud of them’.A former president of the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, a council member of the ACHD WG of the ESC, and recipient of multiple awards including the prestigious Aristotle Medal for the Year for Science and Politics (2019), he is the author of over 380 peer-reviewed publications, edited or co-edited 10 cardiology textbooks, is an incoming Deputy Editor of the EHJ, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Cardiology and is launching a new journal with a CHD and PAH focus.A father of two teenage boys, away from medicine he enjoys tennis, watersports and cycling, food markets/cooking/restaurants, museums/arts, and travel.Advice he would give young researchers as they set out on a path toward success within the field is.

€˜Pursue your dreams and seek buy viagra with prescription the right environment. Work hard and stay close to the patient and to your research, and do not be put off by obstacles’.Prof. Gatzoulis, as one of the leading pioneers, points to future challenges in the ‘continuously evolving cardiovascular subspecialty’ of ACHD. Understanding better the late course of the buy viagra with prescription disease. Optimizing therapies.

Ensuring patient access to tertiary care. Training of the new generation of professionals buy viagra with prescription to serve ACHD patients. And securing resources (Figure 5).4‘Visionary heads of cardiology always had space for this unique cardiovascular subspecialty for the wealth of its anatomic spectrum, the intriguing physiology, the wonderful clinical signs and the deserving patients. The examples are multiple, from the late Paul Wood at the Brompton, to Eugene Braunwald in Boston, to Pavlos Toutouzas in Athens and many others.‘The number of adult ACHD buy viagra with prescription patients has long exceeded the number of children with CHD’, he said, ‘yet the provision of care for the former is lacking. Furthermore, patients and their families have not been educated and empowered enough regarding their CHD, lifestyle issues and outlook and, yet they navigate their lives with a positive attitude, despite uncertainty, multiple operations, and physical disability in some.

For me, the patients are the true heroes in this journey, and a daily inspiration’. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material buy viagra with prescription at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. None declared. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology buy viagra with prescription. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, buy viagra with prescription please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on congenital heart disease (CHD). The population of adults with CHD has risen dramatically over the last 60 years, in large part due to the success of cardiac surgery and paediatric buy viagra with prescription cardiac care. In most western civilizations, >85% of babies born with CHD can now be expected to survive to adulthood.

Almost 1 in 100 babies are born with CHD, and the adult population of patients in Europe is estimated at 2.3 million and in the USA at >1 million, both outnumbering the paediatric CHD population.1,2 This leads to unique challenges that the surgical and medical community, together with the patients themselves, face.3,4 Some have largely been overcome, while others remain to be solved. In addition, there are unexpected new challenges which have emerged buy viagra with prescription. This issue addresses some of these challenges regarding treatment, participation in competitive sports, and advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD).The first contribution is a clinical research article entitled ‘Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients’ by Gerhard-Paul Diller from the University Hopital Münster buy viagra with prescription in Germany and colleagues.5 Although the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is well established in patients with atrial fibrillation and pulmonary thrombo-embolism,6–8 their value in patients with ACHD is still largely unexplored. The authors evaluated the use of NOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in ACHD patients and assessed the outcome in a nationwide analysis.

Using data from one of Germany’s largest health insurers, all ACHD patients treated with VKAs or NOACs were identified and changes in prescription patterns assessed. Furthermore, the association between anticoagulation regimen and buy viagra with prescription complications including mortality was studied. About 44 000 ACHD patients were included. Between 2005 and 2018, the use of oral anticoagulants in those buy viagra with prescription with ACHD increased from 6.3% to 12.4%. Since NOACs became available their utilization has increased continually, accounting for 45% of prescribed anticoagulants in ACHD patients in 2018.

ACHD patients on NOACs had higher thrombo-embolic events (3.8% vs. 2.8%), major cardiovascular events (7.8% vs buy viagra with prescription. 6.0%), bleeding rates (11.7% vs. 9.0%), and buy viagra with prescription all-cause mortality (4.0% vs. 2.8%.

All P <. 0.05) after 1 year of therapy compared with buy viagra with prescription VKAs. After comprehensive adjustment for patient characteristics, NOACs were still associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22] and increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.43) during long-term follow-up (Figure 1). Figure buy viagra with prescription 1Upper panel. Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time.

The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on http://pictrip.co.uk/our-story/ oral buy viagra with prescription anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel buy viagra with prescription.

Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause buy viagra with prescription mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. See pages 4168–4177).Figure buy viagra with prescription 1Upper panel.

Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K buy viagra with prescription antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation buy viagra with prescription during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants.

Lower panel. Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent buy viagra with prescription Cox regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide buy viagra with prescription analysis including more than 44 000 patients.

See pages 4168–4177).The authors conclude that despite the lack of prospective studies in ACHD patients, NOACs are increasingly replacing VKAs and now account for almost half of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions. In particularly, NOACs were associated with excess long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality in this buy viagra with prescription nationwide analysis, emphasizing the need for prospective studies before solid recommendations for their use in ACHD patients can be provided. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Frans Van de Werf from KU Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.9 They note that while awaiting the results of controlled studies, it is wise to use VKAs as the standard anticoagulant therapy in ACHD patients and consider NOACs for selected cases after consultation with a multidisciplinary team. Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to the date of randomization buy viagra with prescription.

The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence buy viagra with prescription interval. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre buy viagra with prescription randomized controlled COMPARE trial.

See pages 4181–4187).Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to buy viagra with prescription the date of randomization. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence interval. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den buy viagra with prescription Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M.

Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE buy viagra with prescription trial. See pages 4181–4187).The COMPARE trial showed a small but significant beneficial effect of 3-year losartan treatment on aortic root dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS).10 However, no significant effect was found on clinical endpoints, possibly due to a short follow-up period. In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial’, Mitzi van Andel from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and colleagues investigate the long-term buy viagra with prescription clinical outcomes after losartan treatment.11 In the original COMPARE study (inclusion 2008–2009), 233 adult patients with MFS were randomly allocated to either the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on top of regular treatment (beta-blockers in 71% of the patients) or no additional medication.

After the COMPARE trial period of 3 years, study subjects chose to continue their losartan medication or not. In a median follow-up period of 8 years, 75 patients continued losartan medication, whereas 78 patients, originally allocated to the control group, never used losartan after inclusion. No differences existed between baseline buy viagra with prescription characteristics of the two groups except for age at inclusion and beta-blocker use (losartan 81%, control 64%). Clinical endpoints, defined as all-cause mortality, aortic dissection/rupture, elective aortic root replacement, reoperation, and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root, were compared between the two groups. A per patient composite buy viagra with prescription endpoint was also analysed.

Patients who used losartan during the entire follow-up period showed a reduced number of events compared with the control group and exhibited a significantly lower number of deaths (0 vs. 5) and aortic dissections (3 vs. 11). They also experienced a non-significant lower number of elective aortic root replacement (10 vs. 13), reoperation (1 vs.

2), and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root (0 vs. 3) (Figure 2). These results remained similar when corrected for age and beta-blocker use in a multivariate analysis.Van Andel et al. Conclude that these results suggest a clinical benefit of combined losartan and beta-blocker treatment in patients with MFS. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Guillaume Jondeau from the Hôpital Bichat in Paris, France.12 Jondeau and colleagues hope that a forthcoming meta-analysis combining all of the randomized studies already published or unpublished will confirm the early results of this study.The issue continues with the Special Article ‘Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD).

Position statement of the Sport Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease, and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC)’ by Werner Budts from the Catholic University Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.13 The authors note that improved clinical care has led to an increase in the number of ACHD patients engaging in leisure time and competitive sports activities. Although the benefits of exercise in patients with ACHD are well established, there is a low but appreciable risk of exercise-related complications. Published exercise recommendations for individuals with ACHD are predominantly centred on anatomic lesions, hampering an individualized approach to exercise advice in this heterogeneous population. This document presents an update of the recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease.

It introduces an approach which is based on assessment of haemodynamic, electrophysiological, and functional parameters, rather than anatomical lesions. The recommendations provide a comprehensive assessment algorithm which allows for patient-specific assessment and risk stratification of athletes with ACHD who wish to participate in competitive sports.Finally, this issue also contains the Special Article ‘Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease. A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD)’ by Markus Schwerzmann from the University of Bern in Switzerland and colleagues.14 The authors remind us that survival prospects in ACHD, although improved in recent decades, still remain below expectations for the general population. Patients and their loved ones benefit from preparation for both unexpected and predictable deaths, sometimes preceded by a prolonged period of declining health. Hence, advance care planning (ACP) is an integral part of comprehensive care in those with ACHD.

This position paper summarizes evidence regarding benefits of and patients’ preferences for ACP and provides practical advice regarding the implementation of ACP processes within clinical ACHD practice. They suggest that ACP be delivered as a structured process across different stages, with content dependent upon the anticipated disease progression. They also acknowledge potential barriers to initiate ACP discussions and emphasize the importance of a sensitive and situation-specific communication style. Conclusions presented in this paper reflect agreed expert opinions, and include both patient and provider perspectives.The editors hope that this issue of the European Heart Journal will be of interest to its readers.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. References1Warnes CA.

Adult congenital heart disease. The challenges of a lifetime. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2041–2047.2Baumgartner H, De Backer J, Babu-Narayan SV, Budts W, Chessa M, Diller GP, Lung B, Kluin J, Lang IM, Meijboom F, Moons P, Mulder BJM, Oechslin E, Roos-Hesselink JW, Schwerzmann M, Sondergaard L, Zeppenfeld K. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of adult congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J 2020;doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa554.3Baumgartner H, Budts W, Chessa M, Deanfield J, Eicken A, Holm J, Iserin L, Meijboom F, Stein J, Szatmari A, Trindade PT, Walker F.

Recommendations for organization of care for adults with congenital heart disease and for training in the subspecialty of ‘Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease’ in Europe. A position paper of the Working Group on Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2014;35:686–690.4Moons P, Meijboom FJ, Baumgartner H, Trindade PT, Huyghe E, Kaemmerer H. Structure and activities of adult congenital heart disease programmes in Europe. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1305–1310.5Freisinger E, Gerß J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P.

Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4168–4177.6Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Executive summary.

Eur Heart J 2017;38:2137–2149.7Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, Arbelo E, Bax JJ, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Boriani G, Castella M, Dan GA, Dilaveris PE, Fauchier L, Filippatos G, Kalman JM, La Meir M, Lane DA, Lebeau JP, Lettino M, Lip GYH, Pinto FJ, Thomas GN, Valgimigli M, Van Gelder IC, Van Putte BP, Watkins CL. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:XXX–XXX.8Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, Bueno H, Geersing GJ, Harjola VP, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Jennings CS, Jiménez D, Kucher N, Lang IM, Lankeit M, Lorusso R, Mazzolai L, Meneveau N, F NÁ, Prandoni P, Pruszczyk P, Righini M, Torbicki A, Van Belle E, Zamorano JL. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:543–603.9Verhamme P, Budts W, Van de Werf F.

Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Quod non?. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4178–4180.10Groenink M, den Hartog AW, Franken R, Radonic T, de Waard V, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Spijkerboer AM, Marquering HA, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJ. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome. A randomized controlled trial.

Eur Heart J 2013;34:3491–3500.11van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4181–4187.12Jondeau G, Milleron O, Boileau C. Marfan sartan saga, episode X.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4188–4190.13Budts W, Pieles GE, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sanz de la Garza M, D’Ascenzi F, Giannakoulas G, Müller J, Oberhoffer R, Ehringer-Schetitska D, Herceg-Cavrak V, Gabriel H, Corrado D, van Buuren F, Niebauer J, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Fritsch P, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Stuart AG, Papadakis M. Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Position statement of the Sports Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4191–4199.14Schwerzmann M, Goossens E, Galle go P, Kovacs AH, Moons P, Swan L, Tobler D, de Stoutz N, Gabriel H, Greutmann M, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sobanski PZ, Thomet C.

Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease. A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4200–4210. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

As a best online viagra world-leading authority on adult congenital heart disease buy viagra online usa (ACHD), Professor Michael A. Gatzoulis believes the field is a success story of modern medicine with an ever-increasing number of patients able to reach and enjoy adulthood, including those with complex disease who previously had a guarded prognosis.Yet he also concedes there is still a long way to go to improve the care for this group of patients with life-long disease. In addition to more evidence-based practice for this global disease affecting approximately best online viagra 1% of new-borns, he advocates a personalized ACHD approach with patient education and empowerment at its heart, and better use of technology.A Consultant Cardiologist at the Royal Brompton &. Harefield NHS Trust in London, and the Academic Head of ACHD and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), his key objective has been ‘to promote the needs of patients with congenital heart disease, including delivery of best care, translation research, training, and education’.Prof.

Gatzoulis was born into an ‘open-minded and supportive’ medical family in Drama, a city in the north-east of Greece, where his older brother Konstantinos—currently Professor of Cardiology at the University of Athens—and younger sister Thalia (now a successful artist) also studied medicine. His father, Athanasios, was a paediatrician.‘I was very best online viagra rebellious as a teenager’, he recalled, ‘my old friends hardly recognize me now’. Indeed, he failed to enter the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki at the first attempt but was accepted the following year in 1977. Following graduation and his national service as a soldier and a year’s provincial service as a young doctor, he left his homeland for London in 1987 ‘for a new challenge’, securing a paediatric Senior House Officer role working long hours best online viagra.

€˜I liked the environment and the responsibility, though in the beginning it was challenging. For the first few months I was coming home totally exhausted, but it got better, and I have no regrets’.With an interest in the heart, he felt the natural next step was paediatric cardiology, so he seized the opportunity when consultant paediatric cardiologist Dr Michael Rigby asked him to join the Royal Brompton Hospital in 1992 (Figure 1). Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.With his PhD mentor best online viagra there, Prof. Andrew Redington, he began studying the right ventricle (RV) in adult patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, which led to several important publications.Right ventricular diastolic function, he added, was linked for the first time to arrhythmia and propensity to sudden cardiac death, the ‘mechano-electric concept’, which had implications on prognostication and led to a proactive approach towards pulmonary valve replacement (Figure 2).1 Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR).

ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of best online viagra Fallot presenting with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms. Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of best online viagra the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt.

Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st best online viagra degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary best online viagra regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.‘It was a golden era for paediatric cardiology at the Brompton’, said Prof. Gatzoulis, ‘and I could clearly see that ACHD was an area of growth and need’.Having completed his post-graduate training in London by the end of 1996, and smitten by clinical best online viagra research, he decided not to go back to Greece but moved instead to Canada to work with Gary Webb at the Toronto General Hospital.Returning to London in 1999, he became head of the GUCH (Grown-up CHD) unit at Royal Brompton Hospital, succeeding Prof. Jane Somerville, to run and expand one of the world’s largest ACHD clinical, training and research programmes.Today, Prof.

Gatzoulis is the academic head of the Adult Congenital Heart Centre and the Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension and clinical lead for ACHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital and a Professor of Cardiology and CHD at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London. Together with his colleagues, he looks after more than best online viagra 10 000 ACHD and 1000 PAH patients, including those with the greatest disease complexity.Among his influences was his father, ‘an amazing person ahead of his time’, who after a successful career as a paediatrician retired at 60 and embarked on a new calling on nature preservation and community work. Prof. Redington taught him how to conduct and report best online viagra research, while Dr Webb was inspiring with his ‘inclusivity and painstaking work on databases’.

But he also reflects on the influence of obstetrician Prof. Phil Steer from the Chelsea &. Westminster Hospital, ‘for his best online viagra patient-centred holistic approach and team building, while maintaining academic rigour and output’.Prof. Gatzoulis’ research focus has been on mechanisms and prevention of heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death in CHD and the treatment of PAH.

He said best online viagra. €˜We have improved the outlook for CHD patients a great deal, but for the most part we have not fixed it’. Prof. Gatzoulis recalls best online viagra how Prof.

Andrew Coats, then head of research at the Royal Brompton, was supportive of his early descriptive work on heart failure markers and exercise intolerance in ACHD, which have now become standard practice (Figure 3). €˜Our work reinforced that we have not cured CHD and at the same time we have opened new therapeutic opportunities’. Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team best online viagra (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.The Brompton’s designation as a national centre for ACHD and PAH in 2002 was a significant step forward, delivering greater patient numbers for his team to understand the pathophysiology and try novel therapies. €˜Patients with Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES), the extreme end of the CHD-PAH spectrum, were either neglected or mismanaged by dogma and we have done a lot of work on pathophysiology of their condition and advanced therapies (Figure 4), which has transformed their lives and relevant practice’.

Figure 4Peripheral cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing best online viagra improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis. Only possible diagnosis best online viagra is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES.

Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel best online viagra. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis et al.

IJC 2014, permission granted.Figure 4Peripheral best online viagra cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis best online viagra. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES.

Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel best online viagra. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis best online viagra et al.

IJC 2014, permission granted. Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.He believes his original work on pulmonary regurgitation/right ventricular function, with his serendipitous ECG observations, the mechano-electric concept, together with the groundwork on HF and the clinical trials on PAH in the context of CHD, as among his most important.Asked how he thinks his work has advanced the field, Prof. Gatzoulis replied best online viagra. €˜There was a major impact from our research on ACHD practice with our proactive approach.

A lot of the recent focus of mainstream cardiology—for example, the right ventricle, the pulmonary vascular bed, and even transaortic valve implantation (TAVI)—relate to original research or innovations originating from CHD.‘Overall, we have made progress, but we cannot best online viagra be complacent. There is clearly more to do. More evidence is needed to inform our practice and we must work more collaboratively to achieve this. CHD is best online viagra a very heterogeneous disease.

And we are not doing a good enough job in empowering patients to lead independent and full lives.‘Now is the time to move to a more patient-centred, holistic approach, where we are truly the patient’s advocate. Education is central to this and merits further investment.2 Better use of technology, including Artificial Intelligence3 and remote monitoring are also due and have come to the fore due to the self-isolation protocols best online viagra of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra'.Prof. Gatzoulis is particularly proud of the 150+ ACHD Fellows that trained with him at the Brompton. €˜The number one asset for me is the patient, but number two—and close behind—are the Fellows who come to train with us in ACHD.

The fact is best online viagra that I learn from them—and from the patients—more than they learn from me!. The ACHD Fellows are now all over the world practising ACHD and I am immensely proud of them’.A former president of the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, a council member of the ACHD WG of the ESC, and recipient of multiple awards including the prestigious Aristotle Medal for the Year for Science and Politics (2019), he is the author of over 380 peer-reviewed publications, edited or co-edited 10 cardiology textbooks, is an incoming Deputy Editor of the EHJ, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Cardiology and is launching a new journal with a CHD and PAH focus.A father of two teenage boys, away from medicine he enjoys tennis, watersports and cycling, food markets/cooking/restaurants, museums/arts, and travel.Advice he would give young researchers as they set out on a path toward success within the field is. €˜Pursue your dreams and best online viagra seek the right environment. Work hard and stay close to the patient and to your research, and do not be put off by obstacles’.Prof.

Gatzoulis, as one of the leading pioneers, points to future challenges in the ‘continuously evolving cardiovascular subspecialty’ of ACHD. Understanding better the late course of the best online viagra disease. Optimizing therapies. Ensuring patient access to tertiary care.

Training of best online viagra the new generation of professionals to serve ACHD patients. And securing resources (Figure 5).4‘Visionary heads of cardiology always had space for this unique cardiovascular subspecialty for the wealth of its anatomic spectrum, the intriguing physiology, the wonderful clinical signs and the deserving patients. The examples are multiple, from the late Paul Wood at the Brompton, to Eugene Braunwald in Boston, to Pavlos Toutouzas in Athens and many others.‘The number of adult ACHD best online viagra patients has long exceeded the number of children with CHD’, he said, ‘yet the provision of care for the former is lacking. Furthermore, patients and their families have not been educated and empowered enough regarding their CHD, lifestyle issues and outlook and, yet they navigate their lives with a positive attitude, despite uncertainty, multiple operations, and physical disability in some.

For me, the patients are the true heroes in this journey, and a daily inspiration’. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material best online viagra at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. None declared. Published on best online viagra behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, best online viagra please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on congenital heart disease (CHD).

The population of adults best online viagra with CHD has risen dramatically over the last 60 years, in large part due to the success of cardiac surgery and paediatric cardiac care. In most western civilizations, >85% of babies born with CHD can now be expected to survive to adulthood. Almost 1 in 100 babies are born with CHD, and the adult population of patients in Europe is estimated at 2.3 million and in the USA at >1 million, both outnumbering the paediatric CHD population.1,2 This leads to unique challenges that the surgical and medical community, together with the patients themselves, face.3,4 Some have largely been overcome, while others remain to be solved. In addition, there best online viagra are unexpected new challenges which have emerged.

This issue addresses some of these challenges regarding treatment, participation in competitive sports, and advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD).The first contribution is a clinical research article entitled ‘Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients’ by Gerhard-Paul Diller from the University Hopital Münster in Germany and colleagues.5 Although the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is well established in patients with atrial fibrillation best online viagra and pulmonary thrombo-embolism,6–8 their value in patients with ACHD is still largely unexplored. The authors evaluated the use of NOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in ACHD patients and assessed the outcome in a nationwide analysis. Using data from one of Germany’s largest health insurers, all ACHD patients treated with VKAs or NOACs were identified and changes in prescription patterns assessed.

Furthermore, the association between anticoagulation regimen and best online viagra complications including mortality was studied. About 44 000 ACHD patients were included. Between 2005 and 2018, the use of oral anticoagulants in those with ACHD increased from best online viagra 6.3% to 12.4%. Since NOACs became available their utilization has increased continually, accounting for 45% of prescribed anticoagulants in ACHD patients in 2018.

ACHD patients on NOACs had higher thrombo-embolic events (3.8% vs. 2.8%), major best online viagra cardiovascular events (7.8% vs. 6.0%), bleeding rates (11.7% vs. 9.0%), and all-cause mortality (4.0% best online viagra vs.

2.8%. All P <. 0.05) after 1 best online viagra year of therapy compared with VKAs. After comprehensive adjustment for patient characteristics, NOACs were still associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22] and increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.43) during long-term follow-up (Figure 1).

Figure 1Upper best online viagra panel. Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% best online viagra in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018.

Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel best online viagra. Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis.

The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, best online viagra whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. See pages best online viagra 4168–4177).Figure 1Upper panel.

Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual best online viagra prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018.

The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent best online viagra the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel. Results of the best online viagra adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P.

Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than best online viagra 44 000 patients. See pages 4168–4177).The authors conclude that despite the lack of prospective studies in ACHD patients, NOACs are increasingly replacing VKAs and now account for almost half of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions. In particularly, NOACs were associated with best online viagra excess long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality in this nationwide analysis, emphasizing the need for prospective studies before solid recommendations for their use in ACHD patients can be provided.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Frans Van de Werf from KU Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.9 They note that while awaiting the results of controlled studies, it is wise to use VKAs as the standard anticoagulant therapy in ACHD patients and consider NOACs for selected cases after consultation with a multidisciplinary team. Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to the best online viagra date of randomization. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period.

CI, confidence best online viagra interval. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized best online viagra controlled COMPARE trial.

See pages 4181–4187).Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to the best online viagra date of randomization. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence interval.

HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, best online viagra Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled best online viagra COMPARE trial. See pages 4181–4187).The COMPARE trial showed a small but significant beneficial effect of 3-year losartan treatment on aortic root dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS).10 However, no significant effect was found on clinical endpoints, possibly due to a short follow-up period.

In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial’, Mitzi van Andel from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and colleagues investigate the long-term clinical outcomes after losartan treatment.11 In the original COMPARE study (inclusion 2008–2009), 233 adult patients with MFS were randomly allocated to either the angiotensin II receptor blocker best online viagra losartan on top of regular treatment (beta-blockers in 71% of the patients) or no additional medication. After the COMPARE trial period of 3 years, study subjects chose to continue their losartan medication or not. In a median follow-up period of 8 years, 75 patients continued losartan medication, whereas 78 patients, originally allocated to the control group, never used losartan after inclusion.

No differences existed between best online viagra baseline characteristics of the two groups except for age at inclusion and beta-blocker use (losartan 81%, control 64%). Clinical endpoints, defined as all-cause mortality, aortic dissection/rupture, elective aortic root replacement, reoperation, and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root, were compared between the two groups. A per patient composite best online viagra endpoint was also analysed. Patients who used losartan during the entire follow-up period showed a reduced number of events compared with the control group and exhibited a significantly lower number of deaths (0 vs.

5) and aortic dissections (3 vs. 11). They also experienced a non-significant lower number of elective aortic root replacement (10 vs. 13), reoperation (1 vs.

2), and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root (0 vs. 3) (Figure 2). These results remained similar when corrected for age and beta-blocker use in a multivariate analysis.Van Andel et al. Conclude that these results suggest a clinical benefit of combined losartan and beta-blocker treatment in patients with MFS.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Guillaume Jondeau from the Hôpital Bichat in Paris, France.12 Jondeau and colleagues hope that a forthcoming meta-analysis combining all of the randomized studies already published or unpublished will confirm the early results of this study.The issue continues with the Special Article ‘Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Position statement of the Sport Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease, and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC)’ by Werner Budts from the Catholic University Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.13 The authors note that improved clinical care has led to an increase in the number of ACHD patients engaging in leisure time and competitive sports activities. Although the benefits of exercise in patients with ACHD are well established, there is a low but appreciable risk of exercise-related complications.

Published exercise recommendations for individuals with ACHD are predominantly centred on anatomic lesions, hampering an individualized approach to exercise advice in this heterogeneous population. This document presents an update of the recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease. It introduces an approach which is based on assessment of haemodynamic, electrophysiological, and functional parameters, rather than anatomical lesions. The recommendations provide a comprehensive assessment algorithm which allows for patient-specific assessment and risk stratification of athletes with ACHD who wish to participate in competitive sports.Finally, this issue also contains the Special Article ‘Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease.

A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD)’ by Markus Schwerzmann from the University of Bern in Switzerland and colleagues.14 The authors remind us that survival prospects in ACHD, although improved in recent decades, still remain below expectations for the general population. Patients and their loved ones benefit from preparation for both unexpected and predictable deaths, sometimes preceded by a prolonged period of declining health. Hence, advance care planning (ACP) is an integral part of comprehensive care in those with ACHD. This position paper summarizes evidence regarding benefits of and patients’ preferences for ACP and provides practical advice regarding the implementation of ACP processes within clinical ACHD practice.

They suggest that ACP be delivered as a structured process across different stages, with content dependent upon the anticipated disease progression. They also acknowledge potential barriers to initiate ACP discussions and emphasize the importance of a sensitive and situation-specific communication style. Conclusions presented in this paper reflect agreed expert opinions, and include both patient and provider perspectives.The editors hope that this issue of the European Heart Journal will be of interest to its readers.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. References1Warnes CA.

Adult congenital heart disease. The challenges of a lifetime. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2041–2047.2Baumgartner H, De Backer J, Babu-Narayan SV, Budts W, Chessa M, Diller GP, Lung B, Kluin J, Lang IM, Meijboom F, Moons P, Mulder BJM, Oechslin E, Roos-Hesselink JW, Schwerzmann M, Sondergaard L, Zeppenfeld K. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of adult congenital heart disease.

Eur Heart J 2020;doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa554.3Baumgartner H, Budts W, Chessa M, Deanfield J, Eicken A, Holm J, Iserin L, Meijboom F, Stein J, Szatmari A, Trindade PT, Walker F. Recommendations for organization of care for adults with congenital heart disease and for training in the subspecialty of ‘Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease’ in Europe. A position paper of the Working Group on Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2014;35:686–690.4Moons P, Meijboom FJ, Baumgartner H, Trindade PT, Huyghe E, Kaemmerer H.

Structure and activities of adult congenital heart disease programmes in Europe. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1305–1310.5Freisinger E, Gerß J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4168–4177.6Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Executive summary. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2137–2149.7Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, Arbelo E, Bax JJ, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Boriani G, Castella M, Dan GA, Dilaveris PE, Fauchier L, Filippatos G, Kalman JM, La Meir M, Lane DA, Lebeau JP, Lettino M, Lip GYH, Pinto FJ, Thomas GN, Valgimigli M, Van Gelder IC, Van Putte BP, Watkins CL.

2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:XXX–XXX.8Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, Bueno H, Geersing GJ, Harjola VP, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Jennings CS, Jiménez D, Kucher N, Lang IM, Lankeit M, Lorusso R, Mazzolai L, Meneveau N, F NÁ, Prandoni P, Pruszczyk P, Righini M, Torbicki A, Van Belle E, Zamorano JL. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:543–603.9Verhamme P, Budts W, Van de Werf F.

Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Quod non?. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4178–4180.10Groenink M, den Hartog AW, Franken R, Radonic T, de Waard V, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Spijkerboer AM, Marquering HA, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJ. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome.

A randomized controlled trial. Eur Heart J 2013;34:3491–3500.11van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4181–4187.12Jondeau G, Milleron O, Boileau C. Marfan sartan saga, episode X. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4188–4190.13Budts W, Pieles GE, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sanz de la Garza M, D’Ascenzi F, Giannakoulas G, Müller J, Oberhoffer R, Ehringer-Schetitska D, Herceg-Cavrak V, Gabriel H, Corrado D, van Buuren F, Niebauer J, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Fritsch P, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Stuart AG, Papadakis M. Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD).

Position statement of the Sports Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4191–4199.14Schwerzmann M, Goossens E, Galle go P, Kovacs AH, Moons P, Swan L, Tobler D, de Stoutz N, Gabriel H, Greutmann M, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sobanski PZ, Thomet C. Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease.

A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4200–4210. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

Does walgreens sell viagra

Date published does walgreens sell viagra viagra in canada for sale. October 7, 2020On this page OverviewAs the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra emerged in December 2019, the need for coherent, pan-Canadian guidance on provincial and territorial testing was quickly recognized. Led by the National Microbiology Laboratory, initial interim guidance on laboratory testing was developed in consultation with the Canadian Public Health Lab Network and was finalized and approved by the Special Advisory Committee on April 16, 2020. This guidance was based on scientific evidence and testing resources available at that time does walgreens sell viagra.

The recommended testing guidance focused on the molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the sole laboratory technique to accurately identify erectile dysfunction in a patient sample.In May 2020, based on new evidence, the National Laboratory Testing Indication Guidance for erectile dysfunction treatment was updated to reflect developments in four areas. Expanded laboratory resources viral transmission from asymptomatic individuals or individuals in the pre-symptomatic phase outbreaks in congregate living and work settings new testing modalities (molecular Point of Care and serological tests)The erectile dysfunction treatment landscape has further evolved and it is now necessary to update key aspects of this document to reflect recent scientific and public health data. One key consideration does walgreens sell viagra relates to limiting asymptomatic diagnostic PCR testing where public health action could have significant benefits. Several pilot programs were conducted in Canada, confirming very low levels of erectile dysfunction treatment in the general population and supporting an evidence-based approach to the relaunch of economic activity.

In addition, it enabled jurisdictions to stress-test testing capacity and prepare jurisdictions for higher testing volumes. Asymptomatic testing does walgreens sell viagra was also found to displace diagnostic capacity for symptomatic individuals, close contacts, high-risk settings and outbreak management. The National Laboratory Testing Indication Guidancefor erectile dysfunction treatment has been updated to reflect these learnings and advances in science.Recognizing that testing regimes are within provincial and territorial jurisdiction, this document reflects the collaboration among jurisdictions, leveraging learnings from one another through the different adopted approaches.Emerging testing and screening technologiesThe Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance is designed to reflect changing risk management approaches as the viagra conditions change. Recognizing that one size does not fit all, the Guidance is also designed to respond to a significant increase in the need to access testing and screening technologies.

Scaling to meet increased and sustained does walgreens sell viagra testing and screening demand will require a paradigm shift, broadening the technologies that are used in a manner that is tailored to the purpose and application of technologies in a variety of settings. Although PCR remains the gold standard in diagnostic testing, numerous technologies and testing modalities are emerging that could serve to supplement diagnostic testing. These recent testing and sampling options could create opportunities to expand the approach to testing by including broad-based approaches to screening through less sensitive and potentially more cost-effective technologies, thereby alleviating strain on the overall public health system.While they can be less sensitive, these technologies could have multiple benefits including ease and reduced cost of production, improved efficiency and reduced reliance on PCR testing supplies. They also have the potential to be less invasive depending does walgreens sell viagra on the technology.

Antigen and extraction-free nucleic acid testing are examples of such technologies that, in addition to being more cost-effective and easier to produce, are also easily adaptable to mobile, rapid applications. However, due to their lower sensitivity than current PCR technology, these emerging technologies may be better used as a part of screening, in conjunction with repeated testing in some settings. Recognizing that these novel technologies have lower sensitivity and specificity than current PCR does walgreens sell viagra technology, their use should be targeted to scenarios where both positive and negative are interpreted and acted upon appropriately.Complementing the deployment of these emerging technologies, techniques such as pooled testing are being used to contribute to the preservation of testing resources. Governments are also tapping non-traditional data sources to complement case data.

For example, data for wastewater testing could complement erectile dysfunction treatment surveillance systems by providing readily accessible pooled community samples and data for communities where testing is not available or underutilized.As of September 29, Health Canada has authorized 36 erectile dysfunction treatment testing devices (PCR and serological). Health Canada does walgreens sell viagra is fast-tracking the review of submissions related to antigen and nucleic acid tests. Submissions that are reviewed include various sample types, including saliva. Consult the list of authorized medical devices for uses related to erectile dysfunction treatment.In anticipation of regulatory approval for antigen tests, an Interim Guidance on Antigen Testing has been developed to outline potential scenarios such as routine outbreak monitoring, monitoring in different situations including high-risk settings (for example, long-term care facilities) and possible adaptation into mobile, rapid testing in rural and remote communities.Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening GuidanceLike the Laboratory Testing Guidance, the Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance (“Guidance”) is based on new public health evidence and emerging technologies, while adopting a broadened approach that leverages and tailors technologies to appropriate uses.

The Guidance is designed to protect and expand the resilience of federal, provincial and territorial testing does walgreens sell viagra and screening capacity.The Guidance is based on a portfolio approach that uses different types of testing technologies for various purposes (diagnostic, screening, surveillance). The intent of the Guidance is to better use testing resources to target the most relevant test in particular situations or use cases to address specific problems or purposes. Figure 1. Technology streams of Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance Figure 1 does walgreens sell viagra.

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Governments have established a new data set for erectile dysfunction treatment cases that provides more targeted information, improving the ability to understand whether s are acquired via domestic or international travel, or if does walgreens sell viagra they are linked to a known outbreak. Race and ethnicity indicators have been added as well as greater information on health care workers, allowing a better understanding of the erectile dysfunction treatment experience among different population groups. In addition to the case data, key data on turnaround times for testing and contact tracing, for example, can also help identify issues related to capacity and timeliness of interventions.Finally, in addition to strong federal, provincial and territorial partnerships, relationships are being further enhanced with key partners in industry and the scientific community. While ensuring rapid and effective progress is critical, it is also important to communicate what we know, does walgreens sell viagra what we are doing and what we are going to do.

This collaboration and transparency supports critical decisions, including what additional capacity may be required as part of the Guidance, for instance, federal surge capacity to supplement provincial and territorial leadership. Strategic communications and partnerships are critical to maintaining and strengthening the confidence of Canadians in Governments' actions to address erectile dysfunction treatment. Implementation plan of the Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing does walgreens sell viagra and Screening Guidance. Updated Guidance Scientific integrity Regulatory excellence Proactive procurement Robust data and capacity Strategic communications and partnerships Regularly updated public health advice as science evolves Updated national lab testing indication guidance Interim antigen testing guidance Guidance on sample types Prioritized, timely review of emerging and promising technologies Responsive to testing, screening and surveillance developments Founded in and driven by scientific excellence Linking regulatory pipeline with production capacity Prioritizing made in Canada solutions Advance purchasing of promising technologies Surge capacity through full value chain and timely, comprehensive data Improving national performance data (turnaround times) Surge capacity for sample collection, lab testing contact tracing Working closely with key partners FPT.

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Guidance will need to keep pace with, and take advantage of, these innovations. The continuous updating of this Guidance will rely on strong federal, provincial and territorial partnerships and collaboration leveraging key governance bodies, including the Special Advisory Committee. The Guidance will also capitalize on opportunities to leverage input and the capacity to mobilize knowledge in Canada and from around the world.Related links.

Date published best online viagra. October 7, 2020On this page OverviewAs the global erectile dysfunction treatment viagra emerged in December 2019, the need for coherent, pan-Canadian guidance on provincial and territorial testing was quickly recognized. Led by the National Microbiology Laboratory, initial interim guidance on laboratory testing was developed in consultation with the Canadian Public Health Lab Network and was finalized and approved by the Special Advisory Committee on April 16, 2020.

This guidance was based on scientific evidence and best online viagra testing resources available at that time. The recommended testing guidance focused on the molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the sole laboratory technique to accurately identify erectile dysfunction in a patient sample.In May 2020, based on new evidence, the National Laboratory Testing Indication Guidance for erectile dysfunction treatment was updated to reflect developments in four areas. Expanded laboratory resources viral transmission from asymptomatic individuals or individuals in the pre-symptomatic phase outbreaks in congregate living and work settings new testing modalities (molecular Point of Care and serological tests)The erectile dysfunction treatment landscape has further evolved and it is now necessary to update key aspects of this document to reflect recent scientific and public health data.

One key consideration relates best online viagra to limiting asymptomatic diagnostic PCR testing where public health action could have significant benefits. Several pilot programs were conducted in Canada, confirming very low levels of erectile dysfunction treatment in the general population and supporting an evidence-based approach to the relaunch of economic activity. In addition, it enabled jurisdictions to stress-test testing capacity and prepare jurisdictions for higher testing volumes.

Asymptomatic testing was also found best online viagra to displace diagnostic capacity for symptomatic individuals, close contacts, high-risk settings and outbreak management. The National Laboratory Testing Indication Guidancefor erectile dysfunction treatment has been updated to reflect these learnings and advances in science.Recognizing that testing regimes are within provincial and territorial jurisdiction, this document reflects the collaboration among jurisdictions, leveraging learnings from one another through the different adopted approaches.Emerging testing and screening technologiesThe Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance is designed to reflect changing risk management approaches as the viagra conditions change. Recognizing that one size does not fit all, the Guidance is also designed to respond to a significant increase in the need to access testing and screening technologies.

Scaling to meet increased and sustained testing and screening demand will require a paradigm shift, broadening the technologies that are used in a manner that is tailored to the purpose and best online viagra application of technologies in a variety of settings. Although PCR remains the gold standard in diagnostic testing, numerous technologies and testing modalities are emerging that could serve to supplement diagnostic testing. These recent testing and sampling options could create opportunities to expand the approach to testing by including broad-based approaches to screening through less sensitive and potentially more cost-effective technologies, thereby alleviating strain on the overall public health system.While they can be less sensitive, these technologies could have multiple benefits including ease and reduced cost of production, improved efficiency and reduced reliance on PCR testing supplies.

They also have the potential to be less invasive depending on the technology best online viagra. Antigen and extraction-free nucleic acid testing are examples of such technologies that, in addition to being more cost-effective and easier to produce, are also easily adaptable to mobile, rapid applications. However, due to their lower sensitivity than current PCR technology, these emerging technologies may be better used as a part of screening, in conjunction with repeated testing in some settings.

Recognizing that best online viagra these novel technologies have lower sensitivity and specificity than current PCR technology, their use should be targeted to scenarios where both positive and negative are interpreted and acted upon appropriately.Complementing the deployment of these emerging technologies, techniques such as pooled testing are being used to contribute to the preservation of testing resources. Governments are also tapping non-traditional data sources to complement case data. For example, data for wastewater testing could complement erectile dysfunction treatment surveillance systems by providing readily accessible pooled community samples and data for communities where testing is not available or underutilized.As of September 29, Health Canada has authorized 36 erectile dysfunction treatment testing devices (PCR and serological).

Health Canada is best online viagra fast-tracking the review of submissions related to antigen and nucleic acid tests. Submissions that are reviewed include various sample types, including saliva. Consult the list of authorized medical devices for uses related to erectile dysfunction treatment.In anticipation of regulatory approval for antigen tests, an Interim Guidance on Antigen Testing has been developed to outline potential scenarios such as routine outbreak monitoring, monitoring in different situations including high-risk settings (for example, long-term care facilities) and possible adaptation into mobile, rapid testing in rural and remote communities.Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening GuidanceLike the Laboratory Testing Guidance, the Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance (“Guidance”) is based on new public health evidence and emerging technologies, while adopting a broadened approach that leverages and tailors technologies to appropriate uses.

The Guidance is designed to protect and expand the resilience of federal, provincial and territorial testing and screening capacity.The Guidance is based on a portfolio approach that uses different types of testing best online viagra technologies for various purposes (diagnostic, screening, surveillance). The intent of the Guidance is to better use testing resources to target the most relevant test in particular situations or use cases to address specific problems or purposes. Figure 1.

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Scientific integrity regulatory excellence proactive procurement robust data and capacity strategic communication and partnershipsUpdates to laboratory testing and antigen testing guidance founded on rigorous scientific integrity enable and inform decision-making on testing allocations within Canada, and support jurisdictions in the timely use of emerging technologies once best online viagra regulatory approval is received. Regulatory excellence is equally important as a foundational pillar to implementing the Guidance in a manner that allows for rapid approvals while still preserving the scientific integrity of the process.In addition, undertaking a proactive procurement approach ensures steady access to equipment and supplies for testing and screening. Governments continue to take a proactive procurement approach, purchasing whenever possible, contingent on regulatory approvals.Timely and comprehensive data is critical, underpinning decision-making by governments.

Governments have established a new best online viagra data set for erectile dysfunction treatment cases that provides more targeted information, improving the ability to understand whether s are acquired via domestic or international travel, or if they are linked to a known outbreak. Race and ethnicity indicators have been added as well as greater information on health care workers, allowing a better understanding of the erectile dysfunction treatment experience among different population groups. In addition to the case data, key data on turnaround times for testing and contact tracing, for example, can also help identify issues related to capacity and timeliness of interventions.Finally, in addition to strong federal, provincial and territorial partnerships, relationships are being further enhanced with key partners in industry and the scientific community.

While ensuring rapid and effective progress best online viagra is critical, it is also important to communicate what we know, what we are doing and what we are going to do. This collaboration and transparency supports critical decisions, including what additional capacity may be required as part of the Guidance, for instance, federal surge capacity to supplement provincial and territorial leadership. Strategic communications and partnerships are critical to maintaining and strengthening the confidence of Canadians in Governments' actions to address erectile dysfunction treatment.

Implementation plan best online viagra of the Pan-Canadian erectile dysfunction treatment Testing and Screening Guidance. Updated Guidance Scientific integrity Regulatory excellence Proactive procurement Robust data and capacity Strategic communications and partnerships Regularly updated public health advice as science evolves Updated national lab testing indication guidance Interim antigen testing guidance Guidance on sample types Prioritized, timely review of emerging and promising technologies Responsive to testing, screening and surveillance developments Founded in and driven by scientific excellence Linking regulatory pipeline with production capacity Prioritizing made in Canada solutions Advance purchasing of promising technologies Surge capacity through full value chain and timely, comprehensive data Improving national performance data (turnaround times) Surge capacity for sample collection, lab testing contact tracing Working closely with key partners FPT. Enables agile responses to emerging issues Industry.

Linking public health and workforce requirements Tapping emerging tech Public education/understanding Looking forwardThe Guidance best online viagra is expected to evolve as the state of knowledge and risk management strategies continue to develop. Guidance on sample types is expected to be finalized during the fall and the balance of testing and screening technologies will be adjusted to respond to the needs of various populations. Researchers and companies continue to innovate and develop new technologies and solutions.

Guidance will need to keep pace with, and take advantage of, these innovations best online viagra. The continuous updating of this Guidance will rely on strong federal, provincial and territorial partnerships and collaboration leveraging key governance bodies, including the Special Advisory Committee. The Guidance will also capitalize on opportunities to leverage input and the capacity to mobilize knowledge in Canada and from around the world.Related links.

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